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The authors should navigate through the following links with assoiated information:


Submission checklist

Consents and declarations

Selection of peer-reviewers

Editor responsibilities

Ethics in publishing

Conflicts of interest

Submission declaration and verification

Acknowledgement of diversity


License agreement


Funding sources


Language (usage and editing services)

Online submission system

Artwork and photographs



Data sharing policies

After acceptance

Susequent corrections/retractions

Policies for open-access, online publication




Newborn is the official journal of the Global Newborn Society (GNS). Our future, anywhere in the world, depends on how well we take care of our newborn infants. This journal is the primary tool of the GNS for communication, to update everyone on scientific progress in the care of our fetuses prior to birth, in the neonatal period, and during follow-up. We have listed some web-links with information that you might find useful while preparing your manuscript.

During conception of this journal, many senior members of the editorial board felt that our current system of scientific reporting leaves authors who do not communicate in English as their primary language, in a relatively difficult situation. To correct this 'anomaly', we encourage the authors to email their manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief. These manuscripts are reviewed by volunteers for suitability of the topic (consistency with the goals of the Society), completeness, and linguistic errors. Both American and English styles of linguistic composition, such as in vocabularies, spelling, and syntax are accepted. If the topics of the manuscripts are suitable, the Editors make a reasonable effort to correct inconsistencies in language, if any, and send the manuscripts back to the authors with tracked changes. Minor scientific inconsistencies such as those in methods, clear statement of the hypothesis, or in linguistic construction of paragraphs are also pointed out. Our goal is to ensure that the likelihood of success with publication should not be lower for non-anglophones just because English is not their primary language. Pilot surveys have shown that most authors have found this process helpful. A large proportion of manuscripts that were officially submitted after prior linguistic polishing were viewed more positively in peer-review. 


Advertising policy: The Global Newborn Society does not accept any advertisements in the journal. The organization has members in 122 countries (, and so all advertisements may not be universally legal or relevant.                                                                                                                                                                     

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The authors provide a consent for publication at the printer's website ( at the time of submitting the manuscript.

Original articles

Please use this list to check your manuscript before submission, and review all journal policies. Please ensure that the following items are present:

  1. Abstract: a categorized abstract in 4 subtitles: Introduction, methods, results, and conclusions. The abstract should be limited to 250 words. Abstract should not include any abbreviations.

  2. A graphical abstract

  3. Main Abbreviations those are frequently used in the text (>than 5 times)

  4. 10 key words

   5. Manuscript

    a.  Introduction: Please use three paragraphs; the first focused on the problem in the larger context, the second on evolution of the question, and the third on the hypothesis and its justification.

    b.  Methods: Please use the first paragraph to state the sites of study, and confirm that the necessary approvals for human/animal and other studies from the respective ethics board have been obtained. Subsequent 2-3 paragraphs can describe human, translational, and laboratory methods. The last paragraph should detail the statistical methods including statistical software used.

    c.  Results: Please include demographic and key findings in the results in 4 or more paragraphs, starting )with the description of the overall human/animal population, and use progressive comparison of subgroups. There may be 3-4 tables, and 3-4 figures. Authors should make sure that they are not duplicating the information between tables and texts.

   d.  Discussion: Please use up to 6-7 paragraphs, where the first is focused on the results vis-à-vis the hypothesis, the next 4-5 on discussing the results in the context of existing information, strengths an limitations and the last focused on conclusions and future needs.

   e.  Acknowledgments: Please use this section to thank efforts that do not reach the threshold for authorship. 

   f.   References: Please use the Vancouver style with an added Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If a DOI is not available, then the PubMed Identifier (PMID) should be included. This is the unique number that was assigned to the article at the time of inclusion in MEDLINE - EBSCO and PubMed. For web references, the full Uniform Resource Locator (URL) should be included, with the date when the reference was accessed. If available, the authors to cite underlying/relevant datasets in the manuscript and include the details of the source in the Reference List.

Review articles and other types of communications



A concise and factual abstract up to 300 words is required, but the Editors will consider pre-approving longer, more detailed versions in specific cases. It does not have to be categorized but the abstract should state the purpose of the research, our current understanding of the issue(s), conclusions, and needs for further research. A higher than usual number of references is often useful. Abbreviations should be defined at their first mention.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be given a high priority.

List of headings

Please include a page with a list.


Please include a section of introduction, subsections on above headings, and a clearly-stated section on conclusions. The review can include as many references as appropriate. The word limit for the manuscript is 3000 words, but the editors will consider pre-approving longer, more detailed versions in specific cases. 


The manuscript can include acknowledgments after the manuscript, before the references begin.

Supplemental files (where applicable)

Supplementary material may include applications, images and sound clips. Submitted supplementary items will be published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please include a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file.

Reporting guidelines help to improve the accuracy, transparency and consistency of various types of studies and enhance the significance of the research work. Therefore, all manuscripts should be checked per EQUATOR Guidelines for different type of studies and the corresponding form(s) should be submitted along with the manuscript.


In all types of manuscripts, data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. In a special issue, the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text).

  1. All figures with relevant captions;

  2. All tables with titles, description, and footnotes;

  3. Please ensure that figure and table citations match the files provided;

  4. Please indicate if figures should be printed in color;

  5. Supplemental files, where applicable (online version only).


The authors need to ensure that:

  1. Front page has a title of up to 20 words; if longer, the Editor-in-Chief has to approve these variations;

  2. All authors, names without degrees;

  3. A designated corresponding author with contact details, including the email address, telephone and fax numbers and full postal address;

  4. Funding sources are mentioned;

  5. A statement of competing interests is provided, even if there are none to declare;

  6. Files have been checked for spellings, grammar, and syntax;

  7. All references are cited in the text;

  8. Permissions have been obtained for all copyrighted material;

  9. A total word count including main manuscript, tables, and figure legends has been provided.

In manuscripts where an Editor is on the author list or has any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another member of the Editorial Board is assigned to oversee peer-review. Editors will consider the peer-reviewed reports when making a decision, but are not bound by the opinions or recommendations therein. A concern raised by a single peer reviewer or the Editor her-/him-/themselves may result in the manuscript being rejected. Authors receive peer review reports with the editorial decision on their manuscript.

Proceedings papers are reviewed by the Program Chairs and Program Committee members of the respective conference, with help from external reviewers selected by them.

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Consent to participate

For all research involving human subjects, freely-given, informed consent is to be obtained from parents/legal guardians to include their fetuses/infants in the studies/reports. In studies involving pregnant mothers/mothers after childbirth, consent is to be obtained from the participants. In clinical follow-up studies, consents are to be obtained from parents/legal guardians for participants who are of an age less than 16 years, or from the participants who are above this age. A statement showing approval from their local institutional review board should appear in the manuscript. 


In the case of articles describing human transplantation studies, authors must include a statement declaring that no organs/tissues were obtained from prisoners and must also name the institution(s)/clinic(s)/department(s) via which organs/tissues were obtained. 


For manuscripts reporting studies involving vulnerable groups where there is the potential for coercion or where consent may not have been fully informed, extra care will be taken by the editor and may have to be referred to a Research Integrity Group specifically formed in the Global Newborn Society.


Consent to publish

Individuals may consent to participate in a study, but object to having their data published in a journal article. Authors need to make sure that they obtain consent from guardians/individuals to publish their data prior to submitting their paper to the journal ‘newborn’. This is particularly applicable to case studies/series.



The authors are required to provide declarations applicable for funding, conflicts of interest/competing interests, ethics approval, consent, data and/or code availability and authors’ contribution statements. These are indicated in all publications.


In clinical studies, the procedure of instrumental review is reviewed , including a statement indicating that an informed consent to participate from parents/legal guardians/patients, as applicable. Relevant information about consent regarding identifying patient data/photographs will be needed.


If any of the sections are not relevant to the manuscript, the authors include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section. These declarations are also submitted on the printers’ website where the manuscript is submitted.


The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.


We request the corresponding author to suggest 5 or more referees, if possible, with their names, affiliations, and email IDs. Also, there is a request to exclude any referee(s) due to conflict of interest.

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Peer reviewer selection is critical to the publication process. It is based on many factors, including expertise, reputation, specific recommendations, conflict of interest and previous performance. Speed, thoroughness, sound reasoning and collegiality are highly desirable. 

As a policy, we have preferred single-anonymous peer-review (the author does not know who the reviewers are, but the reviewers know about the authors), unless the authors themselves request double-anonymity. This was a conscious decision because in our experience, this has promoted the reviewers adopting a more facilitatory, encouraging response for non-anglophonic authors. Many reviewers have even provided helpful suggestions such as resubmission with a more-clearly stated hypothesis, changed description of figure legends, or structure of tables.  


●    Editor(s) are expected to obtain a minimum of 2 peer reviewers for manuscripts reporting primary research or secondary analysis of primary research. It is recognized that in some exceptional circumstances, particularly in niche and emerging fields, it may not be possible to obtain two independent peer reviewers. In such cases, Editor(s) may wish to make a decision to publish based on one peer review report. When making a decision based on one report, Editor(s) are expected to only do so if the peer review report meets the standards set out below.
●    Peer review reports are in English and should provide constructive critical evaluations of the authors’ work, particularly focused on the methods, results, and conclusions. Editorial decisions are based on peer reviewer comments that meet these criteria rather than recommendations made by superficial peer reviewer reports which do not adequately justify the recommendations.
●    Editor(s) always independently verify the contact details of reviewers suggested by authors or other third parties. Institutional or confirmed email addresses are used to invite peer reviewers wherever possible. Each manuscript is reviewed by at least 1 reviewer who was not suggested by the author.
●    Manuscripts that do not report primary research or secondary analysis of primary research, suc
h as Editorials, Book Reviews, Commentaries or Opinion articles, may be accepted without peer review. Such manuscripts are assessed by the Editor(s) if these are in the area of their expertise; if not, such manuscripts are assessed by at least 1 independent expert reviewer or a member of the Editorial Board.

In the rare, exceptional, occasions when 2 independent peer reviewers cannot be secured, the Editor may act as a 2nd reviewer or make a decision using only 1 report.
●    Editor must have a sufficient amount of knowledge in the area if acting as a 2nd reviewer;
●    Editor should sign the review to ensure transparency in the peer review process;
●    Any single reports should be detailed and thorough;
●    The first reviewer should be senior, on topic and have published recently on the subject.

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Please follow Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication. The Research and Reporting Guidelines list maintained by the National Library of Medicine is also a useful resource. This resource lists the major biomedical research reporting guidelines that advise for reporting research methods and findings. These usually "specify a minimum set of items required for a clear and transparent account of what was done and what was found in a research study, reflecting, in particular, issues that might introduce bias into the research" (Adapted from the EQUATOR Network Resource Centre). The chart also includes editorial style guides for writing research reports or other publications.


For specific types of studies, the following guidelines should also be reviewed:


All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work, such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose such interests in (a) summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted; (b) detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.


Your submission of the manuscript implies that the work being reported has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis. Please see the information on multiple, redundant, or concurrent publication,  that it  is not  under consideration  for  publication elsewhere,  that its publication is approved by all authors and by the  responsible  authorities  where the work was carried out. If accepted, the work should not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright- holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.


Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time. Sharing your preprints e.g., on a preprint server will not count as prior publication.

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Inclusive language is focused on acknowledgement of diversity, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid.



The list of authors should be prepared with careful attention. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) and signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

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Authors will be asked to complete a license agreement. Permitted third party reuse of open-access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.



Copyright is a type of intellectual property which protects certain sorts of original creative work, including academic articles. Copyright allows the creator of a work to decide whether, and under what conditions, their work may be used, published and distributed by others. As such, it governs how others can use, publish and distribute articles.


Open access (OA) is the process of making published academic articles freely and permanently available online. Anyone, anywhere can read and build upon this research. It is a movement to open up all the outputs of scholarly activity. This includes elements such as data, computer code, and citations.

Understanding your copyright options as an author is important. As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. Copyright in a work does not last forever. However, for a literary work such as an academic article, the duration is usually life of the author plus 70 years.



You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.


As mentioned above, the journal does not accept any commerical advertisments as a matter of policy.



Text in American or British English is accepted.

During conception of this journal, many leaders of the Global Newborn Society and the editorial board felt that our current systems of scientific reporting leaves authors who do not communicate in English as their primary language, in a relatively difficult situation. To correct this 'anomaly', we encourage the authors to email their manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief. These manuscripts are reviewed by volunteers for suitability of the topic (consistency with the goals of the Society), completeness, and linguistic errors. Both American and English styles of linguistic composition, such as in vocabularies, spelling, and syntax are accepted. If the topics of the manuscripts are suitable, the Editors make a reasonable effort to correct inconsistencies in language, if any, and send the manuscripts back to the authors with tracked changes. Minor scientific inconsistencies such as those in methods, clear statement of the hypothesis, or in linguistic construction of paragraphs are also pointed out. Our goal is to ensure that the likelihood of success with publication should not be lower for non-anglophones just because English is not their primary language. Pilot surveys have shown that most authors have found this process helpful. A large proportion of manuscripts that were officially submitted after prior linguistic polishing were viewed more positively in peer-review. 


Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English can use available English Language service. They may also contact the Editor-in-Chief.

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The authors can upload the files by clicking here to submit. The system will take you to our current printers at the website ( You will be requested to register and then to log in. The website will provide detailed guidelines on the type and size of files that can be submitted. In the early stages of review, it might be acceptable to submit a single PDF file for peer-review. The printers will request for more appropriate, editable Microsoft Word and other high-density images for typesetting your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Use of word processing software

Please save your files in the native format of the word processor, in a single-column format. Please do not right-justify the text. It is permissible to hyphenate words, use bold face, italics, subscripts, and superscripts. Please use grid formats in MS-Word as needed. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts.



You can use 4 figures, but please contact the Editor-in-Chief if you need to include more. Please make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. Please use Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman fonts. Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. Please captions to illustrations separately.

Please size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version. You can submit the figures in a single Microsoft Office PowerPoint or Word file. To ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision, and hence avoid red and green colors if possible. 

If any photographs have been included where the subjects are potentially-identifiable, the authors should have informed consent from the guardians

Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below). If you convert to TIFF or JPEG, please use a minimum of 300 dpi. If using bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi. For combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) TIFF (or JPEG), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi. Please do not use GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG as the resolution in images may be low. If needed, please contact the Editor-in-Chief for help with illustrations.



You can use up to 4 tables, which include a title. Each column should be named. A column with p-values should be included if necessary. Footnotes should be included if needed. If you need to include more tables, please contact the Editor-in-Chief. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.



We will accept video material and animation sequences. Authors are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article, in the references. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. To ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total.  Please supply 'stills' with your files to guide the readers. Please add a legend to the link, as you would do with a figure.



We are an open-source journal. Data should be placed on an NIH repository, with appropriate references at the end of the manuscript before acknowledgments.

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling the authors to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with the manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after the manuscript is uploaded, he authors will have the opportunity to upload relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to the published article.

We are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. We support and encourage research data to be shared, discoverable, citable, and recognized as an intellectual product of value. We follow guidelines from the Centre for Open Science’s Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP), the STM Research Data Group, and support the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles.

Research data refer to units of information collected, observed, generated, or created to validate original research findings. Data may be numerical, descriptive, aural, or visual. Research data varies widely in format across disciplines, and can be anything from spreadsheets of quantifiable information, to qualitative information like interview data or field notes. A list of examples of qualitative data as defined by the QDR (Qualitative Data Repository) of the Syracuse University can be seen here.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images.

Supplemental files

Methods, figures, and tables may be provided. Appendices should be labeled.

Please avoid the use of footnotes as those can be missed by readers.

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Online proof correction

We will request authors to provide us with their proof corrections within 2 days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version.

We will expedite the publishing process. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. 


At this stage, the newborn is an online-only, open-access journal. There are 4 issues every year, and all efforts will be made for expedited publication.

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If any corrections or retractions are needed, or if there are any editorial concerns about the integrity of data, there should/will be an immediate notification of the Editor-in-Chief. If concerns arise after an article has been published, it may be necessary to make a change to the Version of Record. This change will be made after careful consideration by the journal’s editorial team, with support from the Global Newborn Society leadership to make sure any necessary changes are done in accordance with the organization's policies and with guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Aside from cases where a minor error is concerned, any necessary changes will be accompanied by a post-publication notice, which will be permanently linked to the original article. These changes can be in the form of a Correction notice, an Expression of Concern, a Retraction, and in rare circumstances, a Removal.

The purpose of linking post-publication notices to the original article is to provide transparency around any changes and to ensure the integrity of the scholarly record. Note that all post-publication notices are free to access from the point of publication.


There might be several versions of the article from the first-submitted draft as it passes through peer-review and revisions, to its finally getting published. The author’s original manuscript (AOM) is defined by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) as “Any version of a journal article that is considered by the author to be of sufficient quality to be submitted for formal peer review.”  The authors are free to share the AOM via social media, on a scholarly collaboration network, the authors’ own personal website, or on a preprint server intended for non-commercial use such as arXiv, bioRxiv, or SocArXiv, as long the authors clearly state that is a pre-print version.


Posting on a pre-print server before submission to the newborn is not considered to be duplicate publication and this will not jeopardize consideration for publication. If the authors post the “authors’ own manuscript (AOM)”, a link should be added to the final version published in the newborn that “This is an original manuscript of an article published in the newborn by the Global Newborn Society on [date of publication], available at:[Article DOI].”

The accepted manuscript (AM) is defined as the version of the manuscript after peer review, which includes consequent improvements and has been accepted by the journal’s editors. Once the authors receive an acceptance email from the Editorial Office, the authors should keep a copy of the AM for any future posting. The NISO defines this version as the “The version of a journal article that has been accepted for publication in a journal.”

For a newborn/Global Newborn Society article, the authors can post their AM on their personal website at any point after formal publication (including on Facebook, Google groups, and LinkedIn, plus linking from Twitter). Embargoes will apply if the accepted manuscript is being posted to an institutional or subject repository, or to a scholarly collaboration network such as ResearchGate; such embargo periods may vary according to the funding agencies. In itself, the Global Newborn Society is a 501c3, open-source organization that aims solely for public benefit and does not require these restrictions. To encourage citation of the publication, we recommend that a link be included from the accepted manuscript to the published article on the newborn with the following text: “This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in the newborn by the Global Newborn Society on [date of publication], available at:[Article DOI].” The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) provides important information.

The version of record (VOR) is the final, definitive, citable version of the paper, which has been copyedited, typeset, had metadata-applied, and has been allocated a DOI. For the Global Newborn Society, this is the version published on the newborn online. The NISO defines this stage as “A fixed version of a journal article that has been made available by any organization that acts as a publisher by formally and exclusively declaring the article ‘published‘.”

As an organization, the Global Newborn Society has chosen to publish articles open-access and so there are no restrictions on sharing the article’s VOR. For example, the VOR can be deposited in a repository immediately after publication. We strongly recommend that the authors should include a link to the VOR using its DOI. If the authors share the AOM or AM, it would be recommended that a link is included. This would be beneficial for the authors as the Altmetric data and citations can be tracked/collated to assess the impact of the work.

We routinely apply a license to this version to clarify to other authors about the work can be reused. A Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) license is routinely obtained, which allows anyone to reuse the work, provided they credit the author(s) and do not reuse the original work for commercial reasons. All articles include a CC BY-NC-statement: “CC BY-NC statement: This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in [JOURNAL][with CITATION]. It is deposited under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to the data made available in the article of record, unless otherwise stated.”

©2024 Global Newborn Society, "Every Baby Counts"

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